Derivation of Closed-Form Design Equations for Idealized Operation of Inverse Class-E Power Amplifiers at Any Duty Ratio

Yelin Wang, Suan-Kien Foo, Qibing He


Complementary to the conventional class-E topology, inverse class-E operation has several advantages over the class-E counterpart, such as lower peak switch voltage and smaller circuit inductance, which are attractive to high power RF design and MMIC implementation. This paper derives the closed-form design equations that can be used to synthesize the idealized operation of inverse class-E power amplifiers at any switch duty ratio. Calculation of the key design parameters, such as the maximum switch voltage and circuit components values, is elaborated and compared with the case of conventional class-E operation. Further, the theoretical analysis is confirmed and verified by numerical simulations performed on a 500mW, 2.4GHz idealized inverse class-E power amplifier.

Full Text:



N. O. Sokal and A. D. Sokal, “Class E-a new class of high-efficiency tuned single-ended switching power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-10, no. 3, pp. 168–176, Jun. 1975.

F. H. Raab, “Idealized operation of the Class-E tuned power amplifier,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. CAS-24, no. 12, pp. 725–735, Dec. 1977.

J. S.Walling, S. S. Taylor, and D. J. Allstot, “A class-G supply modulator and class-E PA in 130 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 2339–2347, Sept. 2009.

K. Chen and D. Peroulis, “Design of highly efficient broadband class-E power amplifier using synthesized low-pass matching networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3162–3173, Dec. 2008.

M. Yousefi, Z. D. Koozehkanani, H. Jangi, N. Nasirzadeh, and J. Sobhi, “A -5 dBm 400MHz OOK Transmitter for Wireless Medical Application,” Intl. J. Electronics and Telecommunications, vol. 60, no. 2, pp.

–198, Jul. 2014.

F. Ellinger, U. Lott, and W. Bachtold, “Design of a low-supply-voltage high-efficiency class-E voltage-controlled MMIC oscillator at C-band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 203–206, Jan. 2001.

N. Deltimple, Y. Deval, D. Belot, and E. Kerherve, “Design of class-E power VCO in 65nm CMOS technology: Application to RF transmitter architecture,” in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Seattle, WA, May 2008, pp. 984–987.

F. You, B. Zhang, Z. Hu, and S. He, “Analysis of a broadband high-efficiency switch-mode supply modulator based on a class-E amplifier and a class-E rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 2934–2948, Aug. 2013.

H. Sarnago, O. Luca, A. Mediano, and J. M. Burdo, “A Class-E direct AC-AC converter with multicycle modulation for induction heating systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2521–2530, May 2014.

S. Aldhaher, P. C.-K. Luk, A. Bati, and J. F. Whidborne, “Wireless power transfer using class E inverter with saturable DC-feed inductor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 2710–2718, Jul./Aug. 2014.

Y.-S. Lee, M.-W. Lee, S.-H. Kam, and Y.-H. Jeong, “A high-efficiency GaN-based power amplifier employing inverse class-E topology,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 593–595, Sept. 2009.

M. Thian and V. Fusco, “Idealised operation of zero-voltage-switching series-L/parallel-tuned Class-E power amplifier,” IET Circuits Devices Syst., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 337–346, 2008.

D. J. Kessler and M. K. Kazimierczuk, “Power losses and efficiency of class-E power amplifier at any duty ratio,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1675–1689, Sept. 2004.

I. Aoki, S. Kee, R. Magoon, R. Aparicio, F. Bohn, J. Zachan, G. Hatcher, D. McClymont, and A. Hajimiri, “A fully-integrated quadband GSM/GPRS CMOS power amplifier,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2747–2758, Dec. 2008.

L. L. Lewyn, T. Ytterdal, C. Wulff, and K. Martin, “Analog circuit design in nanoscale CMOS technologies,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 1687–1714, Oct. 2009.

Y. Song, S. Lee, E. Cho, J. Lee, and S. Nam, “A CMOS class-E power amplifier with voltage stress relief and enhanced efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 310–317, Feb. 2010.

M.-H. Han, H.-B. Chen, C.-J. Chang, C.-C. Tsai, and C.-Y. Chang, “Improving breakdown voltage of LDMOS using a novel cost effective design,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 248–252, May 2013.

J. A. Alamo and M. H. Somerville, “Breakdown in millimeter-wave power InP HEMT’s: A comparison with GaAs PHEMT’s,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1204–1211, Sept. 1999.

M. Wang and K. J. Chen, “Improvement of the off-state breakdown voltage with Fluorine Ion implantation in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 460–465, Feb. 2011.

H.-Y. Tsui and J. Lau, “An on-chip vertical solenoid inductor design for multigigahertz CMOS RFIC,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1883–1890, Jun. 2005.

J. Wight and J. R. Long, “On-die synthesized inductors: Boon or bane?” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 95–104, May 2010.

N. M. Nguyen and R. G. Meyer, “Si IC-compatible inductors and LC passive filters,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1028–1031, Aug. 1990.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications
is a periodical of Electronics and Telecommunications Committee
of Polish Academy of Sciences

eISSN: 2300-1933