Comparison of indoor/outdoor, RSSI-based positioning using 433, 868 or 2400 MHz ISM bands

Łukasz Chruszczyk, Adam Zając


This paper compares accuracy of indoor positioning systems using one of three selected ISM bands: 433, 868 or 2400 MHz. Positioning is based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), received by majority of ISM RF modules, including low-cost ones. Investigated environment is single, indoor space (e.g. office, hall) and personal use, thus 2-dimensional (2D) coordinate system is used. Obtained results, i.a. average positioning error, are compared with similar measurements taken at outdoor, open space environment. The system is local, i.e. its operational area is limited by range of used RF modules – typical a few tens of meters. The main focus is research of how much accuracy (and usefulness) can be expected from standard RF modules working at typical ISM frequencies.

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