### Wireless Sensor Node Localization based on LNSM and Hybrid TLBO- Unilateral technique for Outdoor Location

#### Abstract

The paper aims at localization of the anchor node

(ﬁxed node) by pursuit nodes (movable node) in outdoor location.

Two methods are studied for node localization. The ﬁrst method

is based on LNSM (Log Normal Shadowing Model) technique to

localize the anchor node and the second method is based on Hy-

brid TLBO (Teacher Learning Based Optimization Algorithm)-

Unilateral technique. In the ﬁrst approach the ZigBee protocol

has been used to localize the node, which uses RSSI (Received

Signal Strength Indicator) values in dBm. LNSM technique is

implemented in the self-designed hardware node and localization

is studied for Outdoor location. The statistical analysis using

RMSE (root mean square error) for outdoor location is done and

distance error found to be 35 mtrs. The same outdoor location

has been used and statistical analysis is done for localization

of nodes using Hybrid TLBO-Unilateral technique. The Hybrid-

TLBO Unilateral technique signiﬁcantly localizes anchor node

with distance error of 0.7 mtrs. The RSSI values obtained are

normally distributed and standard deviation in RSSI value is

observed as 1.01 for outdoor location. The node becomes 100%

discoverable after using hybrid TLBO- Unilateral technique.

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