On Correct Understanding and Classification of Saleh’s and Related Models of AM/AM and AM/PM Conversions

Andrzej Marek Borys


In this paper, some of the existing classifications of the Saleh’s and related models of the AM/AM and AM/PM conversions occurring in communication power amplifiers (PA) are reviewed. It is shown that these classifications are inconsistent and must be refined. Obviously, carrying out such a refinement properly needs a good knowledge and correct understanding of the mechanisms leading to the AM/AM and AM/PM conversions. This was achieved in this paper by performing a thorough analysis of the PA behavior using an analytical tool, the Volterra series. The main points of this analysis are presented here in great detail. Among others, it is shown that the influence of the PA memory on the AM/PM conversion is two-fold: direct and indirect. The former can be however fully neglected. On the other hand, the indirect influence caused by “the interaction of the carrier with the PA memory” cannot be neglected when the PA has not enough wideband frequency characteristics. The latter effect mentioned causes changes in the carrier phase that are received as the phase changes of the baseband modulating signal.

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