Increased compression efficiency of AVC and HEVC CABAC by precise statistics estimation

Damian Karwowski, Marek Domanski


The paper presents Improved Adaptive Arithmetic Coding algorithm for application in future video compression technology. The proposed solution is based on the Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) technique and uses the authors’ mechanism of symbols probability estimation that exploits Context-Tree Weighting (CTW) technique. This paper proposes the version of the algorithm, that allows an arbitrary selection of depth of context trees, when activating the algorithm in the framework of the AVC or HEVC video encoders. The algorithm has been tested in terms of coding efficiency of data and its computational complexity. Results showed, that depending of depth of context trees from 0.1% to 0.86% reduction of bitrate is achieved, when using the algorithm in the HEVC video encoder and 0.4% to 2.3% compression gain in the case of the AVC. The new solution increases complexity of entropy encoder itself, however, this does not translate into increase the complexity of the whole video encoder.

Full Text:



ISO/IEC 13818-2 and ITU-T Rec. H.262, Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information – Part 2: Video. (MPEG-2), November 1994.

ITU-T Rec. H.263, Video Coding for Low Bit Rate Communication, August 2005.

ISO/IEC 14496-10, Generic Coding of Audio-Visual Objects, Part 10: Advanced Video Coding, March 2006.

ISO/IEC and ITU-T, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), ISO/IEC 23008-2 (MPEG-H Part 2) / ITU-T Rec. H.265, April 2013.

G. J. Sullivan, J. –R. Ohm, W. –J. Han, T. Wiegand, Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 22(12), 1649-1668, 2012.


I. H. Witten, J. G. Cleary, and R. Neal, Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression. Communications of the ACM., no. 6, pp. 520-540, June 1987.

D. Marpe, H. Schwarz, and T. Wiegand, Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding in the H.264/AVC Video Compression Standard. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 620-636, July 2003.

M. Mrak, D. Marpe, and T. Wiegand, Application of Binary Context Trees in Video Compression. Picture Coding Symposium (PCS'03), St. Malo, France, April 2003.

D. Karwowski, Improved Arithmetic Coding in H.264/AVC Using Context-Tree Weighting and Prediction by Partial Matching, European Signal Processing Conf. EUSIPCO 2007, pp. 1270-1274, September 2007, Poznań, Poland.

D. Karwowski, and M. Domański, Improved Arithmetic Coding In H.264/AVC Using Context-Tree Weighting Method, Picture Coding Symposium PCS 2007, November 2007, Lisboa, Portugal.

D. Karwowski, M. Domański, Improved Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding in H.264/AVC, European Signal Processing Conference EUSIPCO 2009, August 2009, Glasgow, Scotland.

D. Karwowski, M. Domański, Improved Context – Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding in MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Video Codec. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 6375, ss. 25-32, Springer-Verlag (Proceedings ICCVG 2010 Warsaw, Poland, September 20-22, 2010).

D. Karwowski, Improved Adaptive Arithmetic Coding in MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Video Compression Standard, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing vol. 102, Image Processing and Communications Challenges 3, ss. 257-263.

D. Karwowski, Improved Adaptive Arithmetic Coding for HEVC Video Compression Technology, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 7594, ss. 121-128, Springer-Verlag (Proceedings of ICCVG 2012 Warsaw, Poland, September 24-26, 2012).

E. Belyaev, M. Gilmutdinov, and A. Turlikov, Binary Arithmetic Coding System with Adaptive Probability Estimation by “Virtual Sliding Window”. IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp. 1-5, 2006.

D. Hong, M. van der Schaar, B. Pesquet – Popescu, Arithmetic Coding with Adaptive Context-Tree Weighting for the H.264 Video Coders. Visual Communications and Image Processing 2004, Vol. 5308, pp. 12261235, January 2004.

X. Tian, T. M. Le, Y. Lian, Entropy Coders of the H.264/AVC Standard, Springer-Verlag, 2011.

F. M. J. Willems, Y. M. Shtarkov, and Tj. J. Tjalkens, The Context-Tree Weighting Method: Basic Properties, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 653-664, May 1995.

F. M. J. Willems, The Context-Tree Weighting Method: Extensions, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 792-797, March 1998.

F. M. J. Willems, and Tj. J. Tjalkens, Reducing Complexity of the Context-Tree Weighting Method. Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, p. 347, Cambridge, Mass., August 16-21, 1998.

M. H. Firooz, M. S. Sadri, Improving H.264/AVC Entropy Coding Engine Using CTW method, Picture Coding Symposium, April 2006.

G. Bjøntegaard, Calculation of Average PSNR Differences between RD curves, ITU-T SG16/Q6, 13th VCEG Meeting, Austin, Texas, USA, April 2001, Doc. VCEG-M33.

A. Alshin, E. Alshina, J. Park, High precision probability estimation for CABAC, Visual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP) 2013, pp. 1-6.

D. Karwowski, M. Domański, Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding with Precise Probability Estimation and Complexity Scalability for High-Efficiency Video Coding, Journal of Electronic Imaging, 25(1), 013010 (January 20, 2016); DOI: 10.1117/1.JEI.25.1.013010.

F. Bossen, Common test conditions and software reference configurations, Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) of ITUT SG16 WP3 and ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, Doc. JCTVC-J1100, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications
is a periodical of Electronics and Telecommunications Committee
of Polish Academy of Sciences

eISSN: 2300-1933