The improvement of fiber-detection method to enhance the output of amplify-received relaying on FSO communications


  • Ucuk Darusalam Universitas Nasional
  • Purnomo Sidi Priambodo Universitas Indonesia
  • Fitri Yuli Zulkifli
  • Eko Tjipto Rahardjo


The performance of free-space optical (FSO) communications that using an optical amplifier (OA) in the scheme of an amplify-received (AR)-relaying has a major drawback in the detection of input signal quality under the effects of turbulence. As an OA is based on a fiber-detection (FD) method to receive and delivers a signal at the amplification process stage, there is an opportunity to implement an optical filter to improve the quality of the input signal. In this paper, as the continuation of previous work on improvement of direct-detection, the optical filter is applied on the AR-relaying of optical signal detection, implementing an OA in the receiver. The novelty proposed in this work is the improvement of FD method where the OF is designed as the integration of cone reflector, pinhole and multi-mode fiber with an OA. The optical filter produces an optical signal, the input of the OA, which minimizes the effects of turbulence, background noise and the fluctuation of the signal spectral. Thus, OA in AR-relaying produces signal output with high power and rise up below threshold level. Additionally, an OF with a lower pinhole diameter produces the best quality of the signal spectral to be delivered into an EDFA. Through this implementation, the performance of optical relaying network on FSO can be significantly improved.

Author Biography

Ucuk Darusalam, Universitas Nasional

Ucuk Darusalam is the Assoc. Professor in Department of Informatics, Faculty of Information and Communications Technology Universitas Nasional. He is also the vice rector of Universitas Siber Asia, Jakarta, Indonesia since 2020.


Alzenad, M., Shakir, M. Z., Yanikomeroglu, H., & Alouini, M. S. (2018). FSO-based vertical backhaul/fronthaul framework for 5G+ wireless networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 56(1), 218-224.

Ai, Y., Mathur, A., Cheffena, M., Bhatnagar, M. R., & Lei, H. (2019). Physical layer security of hybrid satellite-FSO cooperative systems. IEEE Photonics Journal, 11(1), 1-14.

Boluda-Ruiz, R., García-Zambrana, A., Castillo-Vázquez, B., & Castillo-Vázquez, C. (2017). On the effect of correlated sways on generalized misalignment fading for terrestrial FSO links. IEEE Photonics Journal, 9(3), 1-14.

Lee, J. H., Park, K. H., Alouini, M. S., & Ko, Y. C. (2019, May). On the throughput of mixed FSO/RF UAV-enabled mobile relaying systems with a buffer constraint. In ICC 2019-2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Xu G, Zhang Q. Mixed RF/FSO deep space communication system under solar scintillation effect. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 2021 Apr 20;57(5):3237-51.

Kumar LB, Krishnan P. Multi-hop convergent FSO-UWOC system to establish a reliable communication link between the islands. Optics Communications. 2020 Nov 1;474:126107.

Shenoda HM, Abd-Elazez NA, Abd-El-Qader HM, Hossam A. Performance analysis of Integrating Wireless Sensor Network with Li-Fi Wireless Communication Technology using OptiSystem Simulation Tool. In2021 9th International Japan-Africa Conference on Electronics, Communications, and Computations (JAC-ECC) 2021 Dec 13 (pp. 99-104). IEEE.

Huang, H., Xie, G., Yan, Y., Ahmed, N., Ren, Y., Yue, Y., ... & Dolinar, S. J. (2014). 100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength. Optics letters, 39(2), 197-200.

Ren, Y., Wang, Z., Liao, P., Li, L., Xie, G., Huang, H., ... & Lavery, M. P. (2016). Experimental characterization of a 400 Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m. Optics letters, 41(3), 622-625.

Vu, M. Q., Nguyen, N. T., Pham, H. T., & Dang, N. T. (2018). All-optical two-way relaying free-space optical communications for HAP-based broadband backhaul networks. Optics Communications, 410, 277-286.

Parkash, S., Sharma, A., Singh, H., & Singh, H. P. (2016). Performance investigation of 40 GB/s DWDM over free space optical communication system using RZ modulation format. Advances in Optical Technologies, 2016.

Aldouri, M. Y., Mahdi, M., & Saeed, A. M. (2019). EDFA Gain Evaluation in WDM Transmitting System of the Free Space Optics FSO. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), 54(1), 122-130.

Nor, N. A. M., Ghassemlooy, Z., Zvanovec, S., Khalighi, M. A., Bhatnagar, M. R., Bohata, J., & Komanec, M. (2019). Experimental analysis of a triple-hop relay-assisted FSO system with turbulence. Optical Switching and Networking, 33, 194-198.

Cai, S., Zhang, Z., & Chen, X. (2019). Turbulence-Resistant All Optical Relaying Based on Few-Mode EDFA in Free-Space Optical Systems. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 37(9), 2042-2049.

Dabiri, M. T., & Sadough, S. M. S. (2018). Performance analysis of all-optical amplify and forward relaying over log-normal FSO channels. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 10(2), 79-89.

Hong, Y. Q., Shin, W. H., & Han, S. K. (2019). Performance enhancement of gain saturated SOA based free space optical link using dual-wavelength transmission. Optics Communications, 446, 134-140.

Rizou, Z. V., & Zoiros, K. E. (2017, July). FSO signal equalization using directly modulated SOA and dual MRR filtering. In 2017 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Sharma, G., & Tharani, L. (2018, April). Performance Evaluation of WDM-FSO Based Hybrid Optical Amplifier Using Bessel Filter. In 2018 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP) (pp. 0653-0656). IEEE.

Park, J., Lee, E., Chae, C. B., & Yoon, G. (2015). Outage probability analysis of a coherent FSO amplify-and-forward relaying system. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 27(11), 1204-1207.

Darusalam, U., Zulkifli, F. Y., Priambodo, P. S., & Rahardjo, E. T. (2020). Hybrid optical communications for supporting the Palapa Ring network. Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 9(3), 1055-1066.

ArockiaBazilRaj, A., & Darusalam, U. (2016). Performance improvement of terrestrial free-space optical communications by mitigating the focal-spot wandering. Journal of Modern optics, 63(21), 2339-2347.

Hulea, M., Ghassemlooy, Z., Rajbhandari, S., & Tang, X. (2014). Compensating for optical beam scattering and wandering in FSO communications. Journal of lightwave technology, 32(7), 1323-1328.

Darusalam, U., Priambodo, P. S., & Rahardjo, E. T. (2015). Optical spatial filter to suppress beam wander and spatial noise induced by atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communications. Advances in Optical Technologies, 2015.

Darusalam, U., Priambodo, P. S., & Rahardjo, E. T. (2015). SNR and BER Performance Enhancement on FSO Induced by Atmospheric Turbulence using Optical Spatial Filter. International Journal of Optics and Applications, 5(3), 51-57.

Darusalam, U., Priambodo, P. S., & Rahardjo, E. T. (2015). Noise suppression in the signal spectral induced by atmospheric turbulence on the FSO (Free-Space Optical) communications. International Journal of Technology, 6(4), 631-639.

Bayaki, E., Michalopoulos, D. S., & Schober, R. (2012). EDFA-based all-optical relaying in free-space optical systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 60(12), 3797-3807.

Bao, P. Q., & Son, L. H. (2007). Gain and noise in erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-A rate equation approach (REA). Communications in Physics, 14(1), 1-6.

Desurvire, E., & Simpson, J. R. (1989). Amplification of spontaneous emission in erbium-doped single-mode fibers. Journal of lightwave technology, 7(5), 835-845.

Anh, N. T., & Bao, P. Q. (2003). Simulation of Optical Fiber Communications Systems Using EDFA. VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics-Physics, 19(2).

Wang, P., Zhang, J., Guo, L., Shang, T., Cao, T., Wang, R., & Yang, Y. (2015). Performance analysis for relay-aided multihop BPPM FSO communication system over exponentiated Weibull fading channels with pointing error impairments. IEEE photonics Journal, 7(4), 1-20.

Abou-Rjeily, C., & Hamad, M. (2017). Exploiting the relays’ backup RF antennas for enhanced FSO cooperative communications. Optics express, 25(13), 14545-14557.

Soleimani-Nasab, E., & Uysal, M. (2015). Generalized performance analysis of mixed RF/FSO cooperative systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 15(1), 714-727.

Majumdar, A. K., Ghassemlooy, Z., & Bazil Raj, A. A. (2019). Principles and Applications of Free Space Optical Communications. The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Mbah, A. M., Walker, J.G., Phillips, A.J., (2017). Outage probability of WDM free-space optical systems affected by turbulence-accentuated interchannel crosstalk. IET Optoelectronics, 11;11(3):91-7.

Foley, J.T. and Wolf, E., (1989). Frequency shifts of spectral lines generated by scattering from space-time fluctuations. Physical Review A, 40(2), p.588.