Statistical analysis of indoor RSSI read-outs for 433 MHz, 868 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz ISM bands

Łukasz Chruszczyk


This paper presents statistical analysis of RSSI read-outs recorded in indoor environment. Many papers concerning indoor location, based on RSSI measurement, assume its normal probability density function (PDF). This is partially excused by relation to PDF of radio-receiver's noise and/or together with influence of AWGN (average white Gaussian noise) radio-channel – generally modelled by normal PDF. Unfortunately, commercial (usually unknown) methods of RSSI calculations, typically as "side-effect" function of receiver's AGC (automatic gain control), results in PDF being far different from Gaussian PDF. This paper presents results of RSSI measurements in selected ISM bands: 433/868 MHz and 2.4/5 GHz. The measurements have been recorded using low-cost integrated RF modules (at 433/868 MHz and 2.4 GHz) and 802.11 WLAN access points (at 2.4/5 GHz). Then estimated PDF of collected data is shown and compared to normal (Gaussian) PDF.

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